3 1. Basic Accounting Concepts

assets = liabilities + equity

Without the balance sheet equation, you cannot accurately read your balance sheet or understand your financial statements. The balance sheet is also known as the statement of financial position and it reflects the accounting equation. The balance sheet reports a company’s assets, liabilities, and owner’s (or stockholders’) equity at a specific point in time. Like the accounting equation, it shows that a company’s total amount of assets equals the total amount of liabilities plus owner’s (or stockholders’) equity.

How do you find assets with liabilities and equity?

  1. Assets = Liabilities + Shareholder's Equity.
  2. Assets = Liabilities + Shareholder's Equity.
  3. Total Assets = Current Assets + Non-Current Assets.
  4. Liabilities = Assets – Shareholder's Equity.
  5. Equity = Assets – Liabilities.

Ultimately, the accounting equation is balancing total assets with the sum equity and liability, equity being a positive and liabilities being a negative. Knowing how to assess the financial health of your business is important. This starts at understanding assets liabilities & equity.

Examples of Accounting Equation Transactions

Thus, the accounting equation is an essential step in determining company profitability. In a corporation, capital represents the stockholders’ equity. Thus, the accounting formula essentially shows that what the firm owns has been purchased with equity and/or liabilities. So, now you know how to use the accounting formula and what it does for your books. The accounting equation is important because it can give you a clear picture of your business’s financial situation. It is the standard for financial reporting, and it is the basis for double-entry accounting.

Other examples of income include commissions, tips, dividend income from stocks, and interest income from bank accounts. Income will always increase the value of your Assets and thus your Equity. Students will use T-Accounts to analyze transactions involving assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity.Document is in Microsoft Word format for easy editing and customization. Similar to the Current Ratio, the Quick Ratio provides a more conservative view as Inventories are excluded in the calculation under the assumption that inventory cannot be turned into cash quickly. If the ratio is 1 or higher, the company has enough cash and liquid assets to cover its short-term debt obligations. A current ratio of 2.00, meaning there are $2.00 in current assets available for each $1.00 of short-term debt, is generally considered acceptable.

Noncurrent liabilities

Equity is also referred to as net worth or capital and shareholders equity. Changes in balance sheet accounts are also used to calculate cash flow in the cash flow statement. For example, a positive change in plant, property, and equipment is equal to capital expenditure minus depreciation expense. If depreciation expense is known, capital expenditure can be calculated and included as a cash outflow under cash flow from investing in the cash flow statement.

Is the payment you receive for your time, services you provide, or the use of your money. When you receive a paycheck, for example, that check is a payment for labor you provided to an employer.


Its assets are now worth $1000, which is the sum of its liabilities ($400) and equity ($600). This is the total amount of net income the company decides to keep. Every period, a company may pay out dividends from its net income. Includes non-AP obligations that are due within one year’s time or within one operating cycle for the company . Notes payable may also have a long-term version, which includes notes with a maturity of more than one year. Assets, liabilities, equity and the accounting equation are the linchpin of your accounting system. All this information is summarized on the balance sheet, one of the three main financial statements .

assets = liabilities + equity

Financing through debt shows as a liability, while financing through issuing equity shares appears in shareholders’ equity. Full BioSuzanne is a researcher, writer, and fact-checker.

These are fixed assets that are usually held for many years. Assets include cash and cash equivalentsor liquid assets, which may include Treasury bills and certificates of deposit. Profit margin is a measure of a business’s profit relative to its revenue. Learn about the types of profit margin and the formulas to calculate each. By looking at the sample balance sheet below, you can extract vital information about the health of the company being reported on. External auditors, on the other hand, might use a balance sheet to ensure a company is complying with any reporting laws it’s subject to. Typically, a balance sheet will be prepared and distributed on a quarterly or monthly basis, depending on the frequency of reporting as determined by law or company policy.

assets = liabilities + equity

Inventory includes amounts for raw materials, work-in-progress goods, and finished goods. The company uses this account when it reports sales of goods, generally under cost of goods sold in the income statement. Without understanding assets, liabilities, and equity, you won’t be able to master your business finances. But armed with this essential info, you’ll be able to make big purchases confidently, and know exactly where your business stands. Balancing assets, liabilities, and equity is also the foundation of double-entry bookkeeping—debits and credits. It might not seem like much, but without it, we wouldn’t be able to do modern accounting.